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Practice Profile

Rehabilitation Programs for Adult Offenders

Evidence Ratings for Outcomes:

Promising - One Meta-Analysis Crime & Delinquency

Practice Description

Practice Goals/Target Population
Rehabilitation programs are designed to reduce recidivism among adult offenders by improving their behaviors, skills, mental health, social functioning, and access to education and employment. Offenders may become participants in rehabilitation programs during multiple points in their involvement with the criminal justice system, and programs are typically provided in conjunction with some form of sanction (e.g., incarceration or probation). Therefore, most programs are delivered within correctional settings while the offender completes his or her sentence, or in community settings following the offender’s release (i.e., probation or parole-based programs). Community-based settings may be delivered in inpatient facilities such as psychiatric hospitals and outpatient treatment centers, or in supportive residential housing such as halfway houses. In addition, some rehabilitation programs (such as drug courts) serve as alternatives to incarceration, diverting offenders into services in the community rather than into correctional facilities.

Practice Components
Rehabilitation programs do not generally follow a common, well-defined treatment protocol (Lipsey and Cullen 2007). Instead, interventions and services may vary significantly by program. All programs address at least one of the risk factors commonly associated with offending (such as mental health status, substance use, education level, or employment status). For example, a drug court program may provide an offender with treatment only to address substance abuse issues related to his or her offending. More commonly, however, rehabilitation programs combine multiple services: for example, a drug court program that provides an offender not only with substance abuse treatment, but also with individual counseling and vocational training.

The general types of treatment services provided by rehabilitation programs include group work (structured via protocol or psychoeducational content); cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or CBT-like components (thinking skills, relapse prevention, or anger management); counseling (group, individual, mentoring); academic work (GED or college classes); employment-related (work-release, job placement, vocational training); supportive residential (therapeutic community, halfway house); drug court or other specialized court; multimodal, mixed treatments (individual case management); intensive supervision (reduced probation or parole); or restorative interventions (mediation, reparations, community service, victim-offender conferencing).

Practice Theory
Effective rehabilitation programs typically use treatment methods that are based on behavioral and social learning theories of change. Behavioral theory suggests that individuals are conditioned to behave in a certain way based on experiences with reinforcement and punishment (Skinner 1965). In contrast, social learning theory posits that people learn behaviors from one another, through observation, imitation, and modeling (Bandura 1997). Therefore, rehabilitation programs are designed to reduce criminal behaviors through the positive reinforcement of conventional behaviors learned through observation or modeling (Lipsey and Cullen 2007). For example, a program may help a participant learn how to manage his or her anger by modeling appropriate responses instead.

Meta-Analysis Outcomes

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Promising - One Meta-Analysis Crime & Delinquency
Looking at 634 independent effect sizes, Lipsey (2019) found a statistically significant mean effect size of 0.203 for recidivism. This finding indicated that adult offenders who participated in rehabilitation programs demonstrated reductions in criminal offending, compared with control group adult offenders who did not participate.

For more information on the effects of specific types of rehabilitation programs, please see the Other Information section.
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Cost

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There is no cost information available for this practice.
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Other Information

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Lipsey (2019) found that overall participation in adult rehabilitation programs is associated with a statistically significant reduction in recidivism. However, certain types of treatment services were more successful at reducing recidivism than were others. Programs that included group work (structured via protocol or psychoeducational content), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or CBT-like components, counseling, or that used drug court or other specialized court models were associated with a statistically significant reduction in recidivism. There were no statistically significant reductions in recidivism found for other types of rehabilitation programs such as work-related programs, academic programs, supportive residential programs, intensive supervision (such as reduced probation or parole caseloads), multimodal/mixed treatments (such as individual case management), and restorative interventions.
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Additional References

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These sources were used in the development of the practice profile:

Bandura, Alfred. 1977. “Self-Efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change.” Psychological Review 84(2):191–215.

Lipsey, Mark W., and Francis T. Cullen. 2007. “The Effectiveness of Correctional Rehabilitation: A Review of Systematic Reviews.” Annual Review of Law and Social Science 3(1):297–320.

Skinner, B.F. 1965. Science and Human Behavior. New York, N.Y.: Free Press.
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Related Programs

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Following are CrimeSolutions.gov-rated programs that are related to this practice:

Forever Free Promising - One study
This prison-based substance abuse treatment program for women near the end of their incarceration period is designed to reduce substance use and recidivism following release. The program is rated Promising. The intervention group reported statistically significantly fewer arrests and reconvictions and less drug use at follow up compared with the comparison group. However, there was no statistically significant effect on reincarceration and employment.

Boston (Massachusetts) Reentry Initiative (BRI) Promising - One study
This interagency public safety initiative aims to help incarcerated violent adult offenders transition back to their neighborhoods following release from jail through various services. The program is rated Promising. The study found that after 3 years statistically significantly fewer program participants had been arrested for any crime and violent crime compared to the control group. The program was also associated with reductions in the subsequent overall time to arrest for crime.

Brooklyn (NY) Treatment Court No Effects - One study
This drug court program offers substance abuse treatment for nonviolent felony and misdemeanor drug offenders. The program is rated No Effects. There were no statistically significant differences between the drug court participants and the comparison group in 2-year post-program recidivism or 4-year post-arrest convictions for a drug offense.

DUII Intensive Supervision Program (DISP) Promising - One study
This comprehensive 3-year program provides swift sanctions, intensive probation, close monitoring, and mandatory treatment for repeated impaired-driving offenders. The program is rated Promising. There were statistically significant differences between the treatment and comparison groups across all counties. The treatment group experienced lower DUI recidivism, driving with a revoked or suspended license recidivism, and any other traffic offense convictions.

Hawaii Opportunity Probation with Enforcement (HOPE) Promising - One study
This is a community supervision strategy for substance-abusing probationers, particularly those who have long histories of drug use and involvement with the criminal justice system and are considered at high risk of failing probation or returning to prison. The program is rated Promising. Participants were less likely to miss appointments with probation officers, use drugs, and be arrested, compared with the control group. These differences were statistically significant.

Clarke County (Ga.) Victim Impact Panels Promising - One study
This restorative justice program requires offenders convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol to attend panels at which they listen to victims give short presentations describing the pain and loss they have suffered due to a drunk driver. The program is rated Promising. After 5 years, there was a statistically significant decrease in rearrests for participants, compared with offenders who did not attend.

Amity In-Prison Therapeutic Community Promising - One study
Provides intensive treatment to male inmates with substance abuse problems during the last 9 to 12 months of their prison term. The volunteer participants must reside in a dedicated program housing unit during treatment. The program is rated Promising. Overall, participants had lower levels of reincarceration rates compared to the control groups.

Delaware KEY/Crest Substance Abuse Programs Promising - One study
This program uses a drug treatment continuum of prison-based therapeutic community and residential work release for drug-involved offenders. The program is rated Promising. Results showed statistically significant increases in remaining drug-free after 3 years and increases in condom use after 6 months; however, there were no statistically significant effects in being injection-free (after 6 months) or arrest-free (after 3 years).

Baltimore City (Md.) Drug Treatment Court Promising - One study
A court that identifies offenders with substance abuse addiction and offers them a program with treatment rather than incarceration. The program is rated Promising. Participants were significantly less likely to be rearrested and had lower scores of maximum crime seriousness. There was no significant difference between drug court participants and control members with respect to employment, physical and mental health or family and social relationships.

Bronx (NY) Treatment Court Promising - One study
This program is an alternative to probation and confinement for first-time, nonviolent felony drug offenders. The program is rated Promising. Treatment court participants had statistically significant lower conviction rates for any new offenses and drug offenses 1 year after program completion, compared with the comparison group. Program participants also had statistically significant lower conviction rates 3 years following the initial arrest.

Preventing Parolee Crime Program (PPCP) Promising - One study
A multidimensional, parole-based reintegration program that aims to reduce parolees’ crime and reincarceration by providing them with services that can facilitate a successful reintegration into society following release from prison. The program is rated Promising. Parolees who participated in the program had a statistically significant lower likelihood of reincarceration, compared with parolees who did not participate.

Oregon Drug Courts Promising - One study
These statewide drug court programs were designed to provide comprehensive management for drug offenders—through increased treatment, monitoring, and interactions with the court judge—to achieve reductions in reoffending and better drug treatment outcomes for substance users. This program is rated Promising. Individuals who participated in drug court programs had statistically significant reductions in recidivism rates and number of rearrests, compared with the control group.

Drug Treatment Alternative to Prison (DTAP) Promising - More than one study
This program is the first prosecution-led, residential drug treatment diversion program designed to divert nonviolent felony drug offenders to community-based residential treatment. This program is rated Promising. Controlling for time the offenders spent in the community following release from prison, the intervention showed statistically significant positive effects on recidivism, time to first rearrest, and rearrest for program participants, compared with the control group.

Modified Therapeutic Community for Offenders with Mental Illness and Chemical Abuse (MICA) Disorders Promising - One study
This program is an adaptation of the therapeutic community models used with offenders who have co-occurring drug abuse problems and mental health disorders. It offers a more flexible, more personalized, and less intense approach to achieve greater reductions in substance use and recidivism. This program is rated Promising. Participants in the treatment group showed statistically significant reductions in illegal drug use, compared with the control group.

Queens (NY) Treatment Court Effective - One study
This is a drug court program for first-time, nonviolent felony drug offenders who are arrested in Queens County, N.Y. The court provides drug or alcohol treatment services to persistent drug offenders who have a history of substance abuse. This program is rated Effective. There were statistically significant reductions in postarrest and post-program rearrest rates for program participants, compared with the comparison group.

New Jersey Community Resource Centers Promising - One study
This program operates through nonresidential multiservice centers that are designed to facilitate parolees’ successful reintegration back into the community by offering a combination of services and supervision. The program is rated Promising. Parolees in the treatment group showed statistically significant reductions in rearrest, reconviction, and reincarceration, compared with parolees in the comparison group.

Community and Law Enforcement Resources Together (ComALERT) Promising - One study
This is a reentry program in Brooklyn, N.Y., that provides substance abuse treatment, employment, and housing services for parolees. The program is rated Promising. Participants demonstrated a statistically significant lower likelihood of being rearrested or reconvicted, compared with the matched control group. However, there were no significant differences in employment and earnings, cohabitating with a partner and regular contact with their children, or drug and alcohol use.

Suffolk County (NY) Drug Treatment Court Effective - One study
An alternative to incarceration for drug-abusing defendants facing a broad range of charges. The drug court program provides substance abuse treatment and education, as well as case management and intensive supervision. The program is rated Effective. The treatment court reduced recidivism rates following arrest up to 3 years. For postprogram recidivism, the study found the comparison group recidivated at 32 percent compared to 23 percent of the drug court participants.

Multnomah County (Ore.) Sanction Treatment Opportunity Progress (STOP) Drug Diversion Program Effective - One study
This is a drug court program that focuses on providing treatment services for offenders facing first-offense drug charges. The program is rated Effective. In addition to showing statistically significant lower rates of subsequent arrests, convictions, felony arrests, drug arrests, and parole and probation violations, program participants had higher scores in positive adjustment, compared with control group participants at the 2-year follow up.

Auglaize County (Ohio) Transition (ACT) Program Promising - One study
This is a jail reentry program that works to reduce inmates’ recidivism once they reenter the community, in part by linking them to various resources. The program is rated Promising. Approximately 12 percent of program participants were rearrested during the 12-month follow-up period, compared with 82 percent of control group participants, a statistically significant difference.

Guam Adult Drug Court Promising - One study
This is a drug court diversion program designed to help participants achieve sobriety and reduce involvement with the criminal justice system, by connecting them with treatment services soon after arrest. The program is rated Promising. The treatment group showed statistically significant reductions in recidivism for general and drug-related crime, compared with the control group at the 3-year follow up. However, there were no differences between groups in rates of positive drug tests.

Probation Case Management for Drug-Involved Female Offenders (San Francisco, Calif.) No Effects - One study
This intervention for drug-involved female offenders incorporated elements of substance abuse treatment, intensive supervision probation, and case management. The program is rated No Effects. There were no significant differences between the probation case management group and the standard probation group on measures of incarceration rates, substance abuse, psychiatric symptoms, or service use at the 12-month follow up.

Minnesota Prison-based Chemical Dependency Treatment Promising - One study
This is a prison-based chemical dependency treatment for offenders who abuse chemicals or are chemically dependent. The main goal is to reduce their recidivism rates once they reenter the community. The program is rated Promising. Offenders who received treatment showed statistically significant lower rates of rearrest, reconviction, and reincarceration, compared with the control group at the follow-up period.

Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI) No Effects - One study
A collaborative Federal effort that concentrated on improving criminal justice, employment, education, health, and housing outcomes of adult and juvenile offenders upon their release from incarceration. The program is rated No Effects. The overall results of the evaluation did not show significant differences between participants and non–participants using measures of housing, substance use, and criminal behavior/recidivism for adult male, female offenders and juvenile male offenders.

Project Greenlight No Effects - One study
This is an institution-based transitional services demonstration program, designed to be a short, intensive intervention, which could provide a greater number of offenders with reentry services at a lower cost. The program is rated No Effects. Program participants showed a statistically significant higher rate of parole revocation and rearrests for new offenses, compared with comparison group participants. However, there were no significant differences in felony rearrest rates between groups.

Transitional Case Management No Effects - One study
A case management intervention that emphasized the client’s strengths, previous accomplishments, and provided expanded case management services during an inmate’s transition from incarceration to the community. The program is rated No Effects. The evaluation did not find statistically significant differences in treatment, other services received, or behavioral outcomes (including any drug use, any arrests, and HIV risk behaviors (i.e. sex without a condom)) for the treatment or control group.

Minnesota Prison-Based Sex Offender Treatment Program Promising - One study
The program offers treatment, therapy, and transitional services to convicted male sex offenders in prison. The program is rated Promising. Participants recidivated less and more slowly than untreated inmates. Treatment also impacted recidivism for violent and general offenses; but was not found to be more, or less, effective for certain types of sex offenders.

Thinking for a Change Promising - One study
This is a cognitive–behavioral curriculum developed by the National Institute of Corrections, which was designed to change the criminogenic thinking of offenders. The program includes cognitive restructuring, social skills development, and development of problem-solving skills. The program is rated Promising. Offenders in the treatment group were found to be less likely to recidivate, compared with control group offenders, at the 6-month follow-up. This difference was statistically significant.

Adult Treatment Drug Courts (Multi-site) Promising - One study
This is a program that focuses on drug-involved offenders and aims to provide specialized substance abuse treatment services. The program is rated Promising. Participants in the treatment group were statistically significantly less likely to report drug use and criminal activity than participants in the comparison group. However, there was no statistically significant effect on incarceration, socioeconomic status, mental health, family support, or homelessness.

Reduced Probation Caseload in Evidence-Based Setting (Iowa) Effective - One study
The program aims to reduce recidivism of high-risk probationers by assigning them to intensive supervision by an officer with a reduced caseload and through the use of evidence-based practices. The program is rated Effective. The treatment group subjects were arrested less than the control group.

Reduced Probation Caseload in Evidence-Based Setting (Oklahoma City) Effective - One study
The program aims to reduce recidivism of high-risk probationers by assigning them to intensive supervision by an officer with a reduced caseload and through the use of evidence-based practices. The program is rated Effective. Their evaluation found a significantly higher revocation rate for the treatment compared with the control group. However, the rate of revocations was still very low for the treatment and 1.3 percent for control probationers. The results showed that the treatment group was a

InnerChange Freedom Initiative (Minnesota) Promising - One study
A voluntary, faith-based prisoner reentry program that attempts to prepare inmates for reintegration into the community, employment, family, and other significant relationships through educational, values-based programming. The program is rated Promising. Participants were rearrested, reconvicted, and reincarcerated less than the comparison group. There was no statistically significant impact on revocations for a technical violation between the groups.

Multimodal Community-Based Prisoner Reentry Program No Effects - One study
A community-based prisoner reentry program that provides substance abuse treatment to medium-to high-risk offenders placed on 24-month community correctional supervision. The program is rated No Effects. The preponderance of evidence suggests that the program had no significant effect on program participants on rearrest, reincarceration, and relapse.

Targeted Interventions for Corrections (TIC) Promising - One study
Consists of six brief life-skill interventions to be used in a variety of correctional-based settings. The interventions address the core aspects of addiction treatment and recovery. The program is rated Promising. TIC significantly impacted measures of cognitive changes–knowledge, attitude, and psychological functioning–except criminal thinking.

West Midlands (England) High-Crime-Causing Users (HCCU) Promising - One study
An intensive community-based partnership between police and treatment providers in West Midlands that provided enhanced delivery and coordinated efforts and resources to high-risk offenders to reduce their offending behavior. The program is rated Promising. The program was shown to significantly reduce the average number of arrests for participants.

Pennsylvania Department of Corrections (PADOC) Therapeutic Community No Effects - One study
A prison-based drug treatment program based on the principles of therapeutic communities with the overall goal of reducing offenders’ risk of drug relapse and recidivism once they return to the community. The program is rated No Effects. The program did not significantly impact participants’ rates of rearrests or drug relapse, and only had a small effect on reincarceration rates.

Minnesota’s Affordable Homes Program No Effects - One study
A prison work crew program designed to increase the availability of affordable low-income housing while training inmates in construction-industry-specific occupational skills. The program is rated No Effects. The program had some significant effect on program participants’ likelihood of gaining employment in the construction field following release from prison. However, there were no significant effects on gaining employment in other fields, rearrests, reconvictions, and reincarceration.

Helping Women Recover Program (in a Drug Court Setting) No Effects - One study
A gender-responsive program designed to treat drug-addicted female offenders in a drug court setting. The program intends to specifically address the needs of female addicts and treat symptoms identified as distinct to female pathways to criminality and drug involvement. This program is rated No Effects. Female offenders assigned to gender-specific treatment did not display any significant differences in number of arrests and reports of drug use than those assigned to mixed-gender treatment.

"Seeking Safety" for Incarcerated Women Promising - One study
A manualized cognitive–behavioral intervention for incarcerated women with co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders. The program is rated Promising. Evaluation results suggest that the program significantly reduced PTSD and depression scores in program participants.

Washington State’s Residential Drug Offender Sentencing Alternative Promising - One study
This program is an alternative to incarceration for felony offenders with substance abuse problems. In lieu of confinement, offenders must successfully complete a residential, chemical-dependency treatment program in the community. The program is rated Promising. Residential DOSA was shown to significantly reduce overall recidivism rates compared with prison-based DOSA.

Offender Reentry Community Safety Program Promising - One study
Formerly called the Dangerous Mentally Ill Offender Program, this is a reentry-planning and service program aimed at reducing recidivism for dangerously mentally ill offenders in Washington State. The program is rated Promising. Program participants had significantly lower violent felony and overall felony recidivism rates compared with the matched control group 4 years following release from prison.

Mental Health Services Continuum Program (Calif.) Promising - One study
The program targets parolees with mental health problems and provides services to enhance their level of individual functioning in the community. The overall goal is to reduce recidivism of mentally ill parolees and improve public safety. The program is rated Promising. Parolees who participated in the program and received a pre-release assessment or who had one or more contacts with the Parole Outpatient Clinic showed a significant reduction in the odds of being returned to custody.

Community-based Residential Programs (Ohio) Promising - One study
The programs include halfway houses and community-based correctional facilities in Ohio. The goal of the community-based correctional programs is to reduce recidivism by offering a wide range of programming related to chemical dependency, education, employment, and family relationships. The program is rated Promising. Offenders in community-based residential programs were less likely to recidivate (measured by new arrests and re-incarcerations) than those not in the programs.

Ada County (Idaho) Drug Court Promising - More than one study
Provides court-supervised, community-based outpatient drug treatment and case management services to felony drug offenders. The goals are to increase offender accountability, decrease the likelihood of recidivism, and reduce drug dependency. The program is rated Promising. The program was shown to significantly reduce a participant’s likelihood of recidivating.

Red Hook Community Justice Center: Criminal Court for Adults Promising - One study
This is a problem-solving community court that seeks to prevent crime. One component of the program, the Criminal Court, hears misdemeanor cases and seeks to provide quick and meaningful sanctions to defendants in the Red Hook neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York. The program was rated Promising. The program had a statistically significant impact on recidivism rates for defendants.

Prison Industry Enhancement Certificate Program (PIECP) Promising - One study
The program engages state prison inmates in private sector jobs (which pay minimum wage or higher), in an effort to increase post-release employment and reduce recidivism. The program is rated Promising. Compared with inmates who worked in traditional prison industries and participated in other activities such as education and drug treatment, program participants had significantly higher post-release employment and lower recidivism rates.

Moving On (Minnesota) Promising - One study
This is a curriculum-based, gender-responsive intervention created to address the different cognitive–behavioral needs of incarcerated women. The program is rated Promising. The program was shown to significantly reduce recidivism as measured by rearrests and reconvictions, but did not have a significant impact on reincarcerations for a new offense and technical violation revocations.

Minnesota Comprehensive Offender Reentry Plan (MCORP) Promising - One study
This was a case management program implemented in seven different correctional institutions across Minnesota. The program connected caseworkers in prisons with supervision agents in the communities to which participants return upon release from prison. The program is rated Promising. It significantly reduced recidivism as measured by rearrest, reconviction, technical violation revocation, and reincarceration for any reason, but had no significant impact on new offense reincarceration.

Allegheny County (Penn.) Jail-Based Reentry Case Management Program No Effects - One study
This was a mandatory jail reentry program with an overall goal of reducing recidivism and improving inmates’ transition into the community. The program connected inmates to Reentry Probation Officers to help with pre-release reentry planning and continued supervision following release. The program was rated No Effects. No statistically significant differences were found between program participants and the comparison group on probation violations and probability of rearrest.

The Canton of Vaud (CV) Community Supervision Program (Switzerland) No Effects - One study
This program was designed to provide a community service alternative to short custodial sentences for inmates, with the goal of improving measures of recidivism (reconviction) and social integration (marriage/employment). This program is rated No Effects. There were no significant, long-term effects on reconviction and social integration.

New Jersey Adult Diagnostic Treatment Center (ADTC) Promising - One study
The program provides both cognitive–behavioral treatment and relapse prevention to repetitive, compulsive sex offenders. Cognitive–behavioral treatments focus on reconstructing offender’s cognitive distortions; relapse prevention focuses on pattern recognition and breaking the cycle of recommitting sex crimes. The program is rated Promising. The intervention participants were 2.4 times less likely to recidivate, compared with the general prison-population comparison group.

Tulsa (OK) Family Drug Court Effective - One study
This is a treatment court dedicated to cases of child abuse and neglect, in which parental substance abuse is one of the primary reasons for child welfare involvement. The program provides parenting training in conjunction with substance abuse treatment to improve family relationships and increase the likelihood of reunification. The program is rated Effective. Families who received services through the Family Drug Court were more likely to reunify than comparison families.

Ready, Willing, and Able (RWA) No Effects - One study
This is a transitional employment program that gives those who are newly released from prison the opportunity to work and find housing. RWA seeks to provide clients with work and foundational skills so that they can obtain a job, secure housing, and become financially independent. The program is rated No Effects. RWA had no significant impact on arrests, convictions, and prison sentences after 3 years; however, it did have a significant impact on jail sentences after 3 years.

Transitional Jobs Reentry Demonstration (TJRD) No Effects - One study
The program is designed to improve behavioral and performance job skills, provide services and support, and help find job placements for participants leaving prison. The program is rated No Effects. The results showed that participation in transitional job services led to increased employment early in the follow-up period, but as participants went from transitional jobs to regular jobs, the employment increase faded. There was no significant impact on recidivism over the 2-year follow up.

EMPLOY (Minnesota) Promising - One study
This is a prisoner-reentry employment program designed to reduce recidivism by helping participants find and retain employment after release from prison. It provides participants with employment assistance during the last several months of confinement through the first year following their release from prison. The program is rated Promising. Results suggested that participants in the program reported significantly lower rates of recidivism and higher rates of employment post-release.

Lifestyle Change Program Promising - One study
This is a psychological intervention for incarcerated males, which addresses the lifestyle concepts around crime, drug use, and gambling. The main objective of the program is to reduce recidivism through introducing program participants to lifestyle changes centering on the identification of conditions, choices, and cognition of crimes. The program is rated Promising. The program participants were significantly less likely to be rearrested and reincarcerated during the follow up.

Postsecondary Correctional Education (New Mexico) Promising - One study
The program provides postsecondary educational classes and programs to prisoners via one-way Internet courses or onsite vocational instruction. The goal of the program is to reduce arrests following release from prison. The program is rated Promising. This program was shown to significantly reduce arrests within the 1-year follow-up period.

San Juan County (N.M.) DWI First Offenders Program–Victim Impact Panels No Effects - One study
The program is a component of the San Juan County (N.M.) DWI First Offenders Program, which was designed to reduce driving while intoxicated (DWI) recidivism, alcohol consumption, and drinking and driving behavior by exposing offenders to testimonials from victims of drunk-driving accidents. The program is rated No Effects. No significant differences were found between VIP and no-VIP program participants on DWI recidivism over 2 years, and on various measures of drinking.

Minnesota Prison Work Release Program Promising - One study
This program was designed to help participants make a successful transition from prison to the community through stable housing, support, and employment after their release. The program is rated Promising. The work-release program significantly decreased recidivism outcomes and improved employment outcomes. However, revocation for technical violations were significantly higher for program participants.

Alameda County (Calif.) Integrated Dual Disorders Treatment Program No Effects - One study
This is a post-custody, community-based intervention for individuals with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders. The program is rated No Effects. While the program significantly reduced the number of reconvictions and incarcerations, it did not reduce the number of arrests, days in jail, felony convictions, or percent of reconvictions.

Connections Program (San Diego, Calif.) No Effects - One study
This program used coordinated service teams to support mentally ill individuals leaving prison in transitioning back into the community. The program is rated No Effects. Program participants were significantly less likely to return to jail during the program treatment period. However, there were no significant effects on reconvictions during the program treatment period or return to jail at the 6-month follow up.

Wichita (Kansas) Work Release Program Promising - One study
This is a reentry program designed to facilitate selected individuals’ transition from incarceration to community living by providing work opportunities outside of correctional facilities and less structured housing alternatives. The program is rated Promising. Program completers had significantly lower recidivism rates, compared with comparison group members who did not participate in the program, at the 3-year follow-up period.

Minnesota’s Enhanced Supervision Release Program No Effects - One study
This is an intensive, supervised release program for persons at high risk for reoffense and who are mandated to residential treatment upon release from prison. The program gradually reduces restrictions as the persons on parole transition back into the community. The program is rated No Effects. Results showed no significant effects on recidivism measures, including rearrest, revocation for technical violations, reconviction, and days in prison.

National Supported Work Demonstration Project (Multisite) No Effects - One study
The program was designed to help hard-to-employ individuals acquire skills, habits, and credentials necessary to find and hold permanent, unsubsidized employment. The goal was to prepare individuals for regular employment, reduce unemployment, and reduce criminal behavior and substance use. The program is rated No Effects. There were no significant differences on number of arrests and time to arrests between participants and nonparticipants.

Residential Aftercare Component of Quehanna (PA) Motivational Boot Camp Program No Effects - One study
This program provides residential aftercare services for those with substance abuse issues who have completed the 6-month Quehanna (PA) Motivational Boot Camp Program. The program is rated No Effects. An examination of the impact of both 30- and 90-day aftercare programs found no significant effects of treatment of either dosage on recidivism.

Community Mediation Maryland Re-Entry Mediation Promising - One study
This program brings together inmates, their families, and other supporters to discuss inmates’ past experiences and future expectations in a mediated session. The session is designed to facilitate communication, understanding, and a plan for reentry to help inmates successfully transition into the community after release. The program is rated Promising. This program was found to significantly reduce rearrest, reconviction, and return to prison for program participants.

Turning Point Multiple DUI Treatment Program Promising - One study
This was a residential treatment program that targeted individuals who committed multiple driving-under-the-influence (DUI) offenses. The program combined educational components with individualized treatment and therapy to address substance use and interrupt the cycle of committing DUI offenses. The program is rated Promising. The program was shown to significantly reduce the rate of committing any offense and of committing a DUI offense, but not of committing other alcohol-related offenses.

Recovery Management Checkups for Women Offenders (Cook County, Ill.) No Effects - One study
This intervention linked women who committed nonviolent offenses to community-based, substance use treatment after release from jail. It was designed to reduce recidivism, HIV-risk behaviors, and alcohol and drug use, and to promote long-term recovery. This program is rated No Effects. The treatment group was significantly more likely to participate in substance use treatment, compared with the control group; however, there were no significant effects for recidivism or alcohol and drug use.

Enhanced Thinking Skills (England) Effective - More than one study
This is a prison-based, cognitive–behavioral skills enhancement program in England. The program is rated Effective. The evaluations of the program showed significantly reduced reconviction rates of program participants, compared with non-participants.

Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (North Dakota) Promising - One study
This program provides enhanced reentry services to support parolees with successful transition back into the community. Services include chemical dependency treatment, psychiatric treatment, educational training, and assistance in finding housing. The program is rated Promising. The program was found to have a statistically significant, moderate effect on rearrest, but no statistically significant effect on revocation of parole.

Opportunity to Succeed (OPTS) No Effects - One study
This program was designed to reduce relapse and criminal recidivism by providing comprehensive aftercare services to individuals convicted of felonies, with alcohol- and drug-related histories. The program is rated No Effects. There were no statistically significant program effects on rearrests, substance abuse relapse, or employment.

Regional Treatment Centre Sex Offender Treatment Program (Canada) No Effects - One study
This inpatient program provides group and individual therapy to those who have committed sexual offenses and have recently been released from prison in Ontario, Canada. The program is rated No Effects. There was no significant difference in sexual recidivism rates between the treatment group and the comparison group.

San Diego (Calif.) Prisoner Reentry Program No Effects - One study
The program, established by Senate Bill 618, was designed to educate and rehabilitate incarcerated nonviolent felons in an effort to reduce recidivism and revocations to prison. The program is rated No Effects. There was a small but statistically significant impact on program participants’ rates of rearrest. But there was no statistically significant differences on reconviction and return to prison rates between program participants and those who were not in the program.

Employment Intervention for Drug-Involved Offenders (Kentucky) No Effects - One study
This program for Kentucky drug court participants focuses on obtaining, maintaining, and upgrading employment. The intervention concentrates on job-skills and social-skills training. The program is rated No Effects. There was a small, statistically significant improvement for program participants on multiple drug use in the past 30 days, but no statistically significant effects for days worked at a legitimate job, income from a legitimate job, property damage, and handling stolen goods.

College Program at Maryland Correctional Training Center (MCTC) Promising - One study
This program offered postsecondary education for incarcerated individuals to reduce or break the cycle of continued or repeated criminal behavior. The program is rated Promising. Participants in the program had a statistically significant lower rate of arrests for a new crime than comparison group members.

Social Support Treatment with Drug Testing (Maryland) Promising - One study
This program involves social support integrated with regular drug testing for recently paroled individuals who have a history of heroin and cocaine abuse. The program is rated Promising. Program participants had a statistically significant lower rate of reconviction, arrest, and incarceration, compared with the comparison group; however, there were no statistically significant effects on employment. Program participants also had a statistically significant higher positive drug-testing rate.

Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (Midwestern State) Promising - One study
This program provides enhanced reentry services to support parolees with successful transition back into the community. The program follows the principles of the risk-needs-responsivity model by targeting services to those with highest risk, addressing dynamic risk factors, and emphasizing cognitive-behavioral strategies throughout the program. The program is rated Promising. The program was found to have a statistically significant effect on reconviction, but no effect on return to prison.

Indianapolis (Indiana) Reentry Project No Effects - One study
This was a reentry program in which individuals returning from prison were ordered by their parole or probation officers to participate in a 1-hour meeting within 90 days of their release. The meetings were meant to convey an intolerance for violence in the community and to allow the individuals to connect with service providers. The program is rated No Effects. The program was shown to have no statistically significant effects on the likelihood of rearrest and the time to rearrest.

Returning Home – Ohio (RHO) Pilot Program Promising - One study
This program linked incarcerated persons who had disabilities and were at risk for homelessness to supportive housing upon their release from prison. The goal was to reduce recidivism, homelessness, and multiple systems use. The program is rated Promising. The program was shown to statistically significantly reduce the probability of rearrest (but not re-incarceration) and length of time from release to rearrest; however, treatment group participants were rearrested more frequently.

Florida Work Release Program Promising - One study
This reentry program allows individuals who are nearing the end of their custodial sentences to work regular jobs in the community. The program is based in work release centers in participants’ counties of residence in Florida. The program is rated as Promising. The program was found to have a statistically significant effect on reducing reconvictions of participants and increasing their employment and quarterly earnings post-release.

North Carolina Vocational Delivery System No Effects - One study
This program was designed to assist justice-involved young adults (ages 18 to 22) in obtaining postrelease employment. It involved an integrated system of vocational training and reentry services to reduce the rate of rearrest after release. This program is rated No Effects. Results suggest there were no statistically significant differences in measures of recidivism and employment between young adults who participated in the program, compared with those who did not participate.

Discretionary Parole in New Jersey Promising - One study
This allows individuals to be released early from a prison in New Jersey and complete the remainder of their sentences under supervision, with the goal of reducing recidivism. The program is rated Promising. The treatment group released early from prison had statistically significantly lower rates of reconviction, number of days until reconviction, re-arrests, and days to re-arrest, compared with those who had completed their entire sentences and were unconditionally released to the community.

Intensive Outpatient Program (IOP) and Non-Hospital Residential (NHR) Program Promising - One study
These were community-based, substance abuse treatment programs for recently paroled, substance-dependent individuals. The primary aim of the programs was to treat participants’ substance abuse in the community while reducing their likelihood of reoffending. The program is rated Promising. Program participants were less likely to be convicted of a new crime, when compared with the community comparison group; this was a statistically significant difference.

Mentally Ill Offender Community Transition Program (Washington) Effective - One study
The program is targeted at individuals whose mental illnesses are seen as instrumental in their offenses, and who are likely to qualify for and benefit from publicly supported treatment in the community. The overall goal is to reduce recidivism . The program is rated Effective. Participants in the program were less likely to be convicted of any new offense and convicted of felony offenses, compared with the matched comparison group. The difference was statistically significant.

Cognitive Skills Training (Georgia) No Effects - More than one study
Implemented by the Georgia Board of Pardons and Paroles, this is a cognitive–behavioral program for male parolees that aims to build psychosocial skills in areas such as self-control, interpersonal problem-solving, and critical reasoning. The program is rated No Effects. The authors found no statistically significant effect of program participation on recidivism and employment measures.

Choosing to Think, Thinking to Choose No Effects - One study
This is a cognitive–behavioral therapy program, consisting of 14 sequential classroom lessons, for high-risk probationers and delivered by probation officers in a community correctional environment. This program was rated No Effects. Results indicate that participants had a statistically significant lower recidivism rate, measured as committing any new offense compared with nonparticipants, however, no statistically significant differences were found across individual offense types.

Milwaukee Safe Streets Prisoner Release Initiative (PRI) Promising - One study
This program combines enhanced employment opportunities and wraparound services for prisoners before and after release from prison. The program is rated Promising. There was a statistically significant reduction in likelihood of rearrests for program group participants, compared with the control group. There was also a lower rate of reimprisonment for program participants than nonparticipants; however, this difference was not statistically significant.

High-Risk Revocation Reduction (HRRR) Program in Minnesota Promising - One study
This is an adult reentry program designed to reduce recidivism among high-risk male offenders who were previously released from a state prison but returned to prison for violating conditions of their supervised release. The program is rated Promising. The program was shown to have a statistically significant effect on reducing revocation and reconviction; however, it did not have a statistically significant effect on reducing rearrests and reincarceration.

Rapid Intervention Community Court (Chittenden County, Vt.) No Effects - One study
This is a prosecutor-led diversion program for nonviolent defendants, which is designed to decrease the number of convictions and reduce recidivism while improving administrative efficiency and cost effectiveness. The program is rated No Effects. The program had a statistically significant effect on reducing the likelihood of conviction, but there was no statistically significant effect on recidivism for program participants, compared with comparison participants.

Second Chance Act (SCA) Adult Reentry Demonstration Programs No Effects - One study
This is a program designed to reduce recidivism and improve employment rates through reentry services for individuals who have a moderate-to-high risk for reoffending. The program is rated No Effects. At the 30-month follow up, there were no statistically significant differences in rearrest, reconviction, reincarceration, or employment rates between program participants and control group members.

Delaware CREST Outreach Centers Promising - One study
This is a residential work-release program that uses therapy, counseling and treatment for offenders with a history of substance use who are reentering society. The program is rated Promising. There were statistically significant increases in participants being injection-free at 6 months and being drug-free after 3 years; however, there were no statistically significant effects in condom use (at 6 months) or being arrest-free (after 3 years).

Delaware KEY Substance Abuse Program Promising - One study
This program is a prison-based therapeutic community for drug-involved offenders. The program is rated Promising. After 3 years, results showed statistically significant increases in remaining drug-free; however, there were no statistically significant effects in being arrest-free.

Veterans Moving Forward (San Diego, Calif.) Promising - One study
This program is designed to assist incarcerated male veterans of the U.S. military by providing them with in-custody treatment, services, and linkage to rehabilitative programming and community resources and reduce their chances of recidivism. The program is rated Promising. Results showed a statistically significant reduction in recidivism for program participants during the 12-month follow-up period, compared with the comparison group.

Honest Opportunity Probation with Enforcement (HOPE) No Effects - One study
This is a community supervision strategy that includes close monitoring; random drug testing; and swift, certain, and fair responses to any violations of probation. The program is rated No Effects. There were no statistically significant differences between HOPE and probation as usual (PAU) probationers in the number of arrests, revocations, and time to first arrest. However, HOPE probationers had a statistically significant greater number of new convictions, compared with PAU probationers.
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Practice Snapshot

Age: 18+

Gender: Both

Race/Ethnicity: American Indians/Alaska Native, Black, Hispanic, Other, White

Targeted Population: Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD) Offenders, High Risk Offenders, Prisoners, Serious/Violent Offender

Settings: Correctional, Courts, Inpatient/Outpatient, Other Community Setting, Residential (group home, shelter care, nonsecure)

Practice Type: Academic Skills Enhancement, Aftercare/Reentry, Alcohol and Drug Therapy/Treatment, Alternatives to Detention, Alternatives to Incarceration, Cognitive Behavioral Treatment, Conflict Resolution/Interpersonal Skills, Court Processing, Day/Evening Treatment, Diversion, Drug Court, Electronic Monitoring, Gender-Specific Programming, Group Therapy, Individual Therapy, Mental Health Court, Mentoring, Probation/Parole Services, Residential Treatment Center, Restorative Justice, Therapeutic Communities, Vocational/Job Training, Wraparound/Case Management

Unit of Analysis: Persons